Quotation Mühlberger, Roman, Bachhofner, Stefan, Castelló Ferrer, Eduardo, Di Ciccio, Claudio, Weber, Ingo, Wöhrer, Maximilian, Zdun, Uwe. 2020. Foundational Oracle Patterns: Connecting Blockchain to the Off-Chain World. In Business Process Management: Blockchain and Robotic Process Automation Forum, Hrsg. Springer Nature Switzerland, 35-51. Sevilla: None.




Blockchain has evolved into a platform for decentralizedapplications, with beneficial properties like high integrity, transparency,and resilience against censorship and tampering. However, blockchainsare closed-world systems which do not have access to external state. Toovercome this limitation, oracles have been introduced in various formsand for different purposes. However so far common oracle best prac-tices have not been dissected, classified, and studied in their fundamen-tal aspects. In this paper, we address this gap by studying foundationalblockchain oracle patterns in two foundational dimensions characteris-ing the oracles: (i) the data flow direction, i.e., inbound and outbounddata flow, from the viewpoint of the blockchain; and (ii) the initiatorof the data flow, i.e., whether it is push or pull-based communication.We provide a structured description of the four patterns in detail, anddiscuss an implementation of these patterns based on use cases. On thisbasis we conduct a quantitative analysis, which results in the insight thatthe four different patterns are characterized by distinct performance andcosts profiles.


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Publication's profile

Status of publication Published
Affiliation WU
Type of publication Contribution to conference proceedings
WU-Journal-Rating new STRAT-C
Language English
Title Foundational Oracle Patterns: Connecting Blockchain to the Off-Chain World
Title of whole publication Business Process Management: Blockchain and Robotic Process Automation Forum
Editor Springer Nature Switzerland
Page from 35
Page to 51
Location Sevilla
Year 2020
URL http://link.springer.com/content/pdf/10.1007/978-3-030-58779-6_3
Open Access N


Bachhofner, Stefan (Details)
Di Ciccio, Claudio (Former researcher)
Castelló Ferrer, Eduardo (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, United States/USA)
Mühlberger, Roman (Vienna Univesty of Economics and Business, Austria)
Weber, Ingo (Technische Universität Berlin, Germany)
Wöhrer, Maximilian (University of Vienna, Austria)
Zdun, Uwe (University of Vienna, Austria)
Institute for Data, Process and Knowledge Management (AE Polleres) (Details)
Research Institute for Computational Methods FI (Details)
Research areas (ÖSTAT Classification 'Statistik Austria')
1140 Software engineering (Details)
1158 Distributed systems (Details)
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