Quotation Dorninger, Christian, Hornborg, Alf, Absona, David, von Wehrden, Henrik, Schaffartzik, Anke, Giljum, Stefan, Engler, John-Oliver, Feller, Robert, Hubacek, Klaus, Wieland, Hanspeter. 2021. Global patterns of ecologically unequal exchange: Implications for sustainability in the 21st century. Ecological Economics. 179


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Abstract

Ecologically unequal exchange theory posits asymmetric net flows of biophysical resources from poorer to richer countries. To date, empirical evidence to support this theoretical notion as a systemic aspect of the global economy is largely lacking. Through environmentally-extended multi-regional input-output modelling, we provide empirical evidence for ecologically unequal exchange as a persistent feature of the global economy from 1990 to 2015. We identify the regions of origin and final consumption for four resource groups: materials, energy, land, and labor. By comparing the monetary exchange value of resources embodied in trade, we find significant international disparities in how resource provision is compensated. Value added per ton of raw material embodied in exports is 11 times higher in high-income countries than in those with the lowest income, and 28 times higher per unit of embodied labor. With the exception of embodied land for China and India, all other world regions serve as net exporters of all types of embodied resources to high-income countries across the 1990–2015 time period. On aggregate, ecologically unequal exchange allows high-income countries to simultaneously appropriate resources and to generate a monetary surplus through international trade. This has far-reaching implications for global sustainability and for the economic growth prospects of nations.

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Publication's profile

Status of publication Published
Affiliation WU
Type of publication Journal article
Journal Ecological Economics
Citation Index SSCI
WU Journalrating 2009 A
WU-Journal-Rating new FIN-A, STRAT-B, VW-C, WH-B
Language English
Title Global patterns of ecologically unequal exchange: Implications for sustainability in the 21st century
Volume 179
Year 2021
Reviewed? Y
DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolecon.2020.106824
Open Access N

Associations

Projects
FINEPRINT (Spatially explicit material footprints: Fine-scale assessment of Europe's global environmental and social impacts)
People
Dorninger, Christian (Former researcher)
Giljum, Stefan (Details)
Hubacek, Klaus (Former researcher)
Wieland, Hanspeter (Details)
External
Absona, David (Leuphana University of Lüneburg, Germany)
Engler, John-Oliver (Leuphana University of Lüneburg, Germany)
Feller, Robert (Leuphana University of Lüneburg, Germany)
Hornborg, Alf (Lund University, Sweden)
Schaffartzik, Anke (BOKU Wien, Austria)
von Wehrden, Henrik (Leuphana University of Lüneburg, Germany)
Organization
Institute for Ecological Economics IN (Details)
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