Quotation Cano, Stefan, Chrea, Christelle, Salzberger, Thomas, Alfieri, Thomas, Emilien, Gerard, Mainy, Nelly, Ramazzotti, Antonio, Lüdicke, Frank, Weitkunat, Rolf. 2018. Development and validation of a new instrument to measure perceived risks associated with the use of tobacco and nicotine-containing products. Health and Quality of Life Outcomes. 16 (1), 192-206.




Making tobacco products associated with lower risks available to smokers who would otherwise continue smoking is recognized as an important strategy towards addressing smoking-related harm. Predicting use behavior is an important major component of product risk assessment. In this context, risk perception is a possible factor driving tobacco product uptake and use. As prior to market launch real-world actual product use cannot be observed, assessing risk perception can provide predictive information. Considering the lack of suitable validated self-report instruments, the development of a new instrument was undertaken to quantify perceived risks of tobacco and nicotine-containing products by adult smokers, former smokers and never-smokers. Initial items were constructed based on a literature review, focus groups and expert opinion. Data for scale formation and assessment were obtained through two successive US-based web surveys (n = 2020 and 1640 completers, respectively). Psychometric evaluation was based on Rasch Measurement Theory and Classical Test Theory. Psychometric evaluation supported the formation of an 18-item Perceived Health Risk scale and a 7-item Perceived Addiction Risk scale: item response option thresholds were ordered correctly for all items; item locations in each scale were spread out (coverage range 75–87%); scale reliability was supported by high person separation indices > 0.93, Cronbach’s alpha > 0.98 and Corrected Item-Total Correlations > 0.88; and no differential item functioning was present. Construct validity evaluations met expectations through inter-scale correlations and findings from known-group comparisons. The Perceived Risk Instrument is a psychometrically robust instrument applicable for general and personal risk perception measurement, for use in different types of products (including cigarettes, nicotine replacement therapy, potential Modified Risk Tobacco Products), and for different ...


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Publication's profile

Status of publication Published
Affiliation WU
Type of publication Journal article
Journal Health and Quality of Life Outcomes
Citation Index SSCI
Language English
Title Development and validation of a new instrument to measure perceived risks associated with the use of tobacco and nicotine-containing products
Volume 16
Number 1
Year 2018
Page from 192
Page to 206
Reviewed? Y
DOI https://doi.org/10.1186/s12955-018-0997-5
Open Access Y
Open Access Link https://hqlo.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12955-018-0997-5


Salzberger, Thomas (Details)
Alfieri, Thomas (Covance Market Access Inc., United States/USA)
Cano, Stefan (Modus Outcomes, United Kingdom)
Chrea, Christelle (Philip Morris Products S.A., Switzerland)
Emilien, Gerard (Philip Morris Products S.A., Switzerland)
Lüdicke, Frank (Philip Morris Products S.A., Switzerland)
Mainy, Nelly (Philip Morris Products S.A., Switzerland)
Ramazzotti, Antonio (Philip Morris International Management S.A,, Switzerland)
Weitkunat, Rolf (Philip Morris Products S.A., Switzerland)
Institute for Statistics and Mathematics IN (Details)
Research areas (ÖSTAT Classification 'Statistik Austria')
3925 Health sciences (Details)
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