Quotation Reinhartz-Berger, Iris, Figl, Kathrin, Haugen, Øystein. 2017. Investigating styles in variability modeling: Hierarchical vs. constrained styles. Information and Software Technology (Elsevier) 87, 81-102.



Context:A common way to represent product lines is with variability modeling. Yet, there are different ways to extract and organize relevant characteristics of variability. Comprehensibility of these models and the ease of creating models are important for the efficiency of any variability management approach. Objective: The goal of this paper is to investigate the comprehensibility of two common styles to organize variability into models - hierarchical and constrained - where the dependencies between choices are specified either through the hierarchy of the model or as cross-cutting constraints, respectively. Method: We conducted a controlled experiment with a sample of 90 participants who were students with prior training in modeling. Each participant was provided with two variability models specified in Common Variability Language (CVL) and was asked to answer questions requiring interpretation of provided models. The models included 9 to 20 nodes and 8 to 19 edges and used the main variability elements. After answering the questions, the participants were asked to create a model based on a textual description. Results: The results indicate that the hierarchical modeling style was easier to comprehend from a subjective point of view, but there was also a significant interaction effect with the degree of dependency in the models, that influenced objective comprehension. With respect to model creation, we found that the use of a constrained modeling style resulted in higher correctness of variability models. Conclusions:Prior exposure to modeling style and the degree of dependency among elements in the model determine what modeling style a participant chose when creating the model from natural language descriptions. Participants tended to choose a hierarchical style for modeling situations with high dependency and a constrained style for situations with low dependency. Furthermore, the degree of dependency also influences the comprehension of the variability model.

Publication's profile

Status of publication Published
Affiliation WU
Type of publication Journal article
Journal Information and Software Technology (Elsevier)
Citation Index SCI
WU-Journal-Rating new INF-A
Language English
Title Investigating styles in variability modeling: Hierarchical vs. constrained styles
Volume 87
Year 2017
Page from 81
Page to 102
Reviewed? Y
URL http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0950584917300800
DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.infsof.2017.01.012


Figl, Kathrin (Former researcher)
Haugen, Øystein (SINTEF, Norway)
Reinhartz-Berger, Iris (University of Haifa, Israel)
Information Systems and New Media IN (Details)
Research areas (ÖSTAT Classification 'Statistik Austria')
1134 Computer supported cooperative work (CSCW) (Details)
1138 Information systems (Details)
1161 Human-computer interaction (Details)
2972 Usability research (Details)
5367 Management information systems (Details)
5521 Cognitive psychology (Details)
5838 E-learning, telelearning (Details)
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