Quotation Van Doesum, Niels J., Murphy, Ryan O., Gallucci, Marcello, Aharonov-Majar, Efrat, Athenstaedt, Ursula, Tung Au, Wing, Bai, Liying, Böhm, Robert, Bovina, Inna, Buchan, Nancy R., Chen, Xiao-Ping, Dumont, Kitty B., Engelmann, Jan B., Eriksson, Kimmo, Euh, Hyun, Fiedler, Susann, Friesen, Justin, Gächter, Simon, Garcia, Camilo, González, Roberto, Graf, Sylvie, Growiec, Katarzyna, Guimond, Serge, Hřebíčková, Martina, Immer-Bernold, Elizabeth, Joireman, Jeff, Karagonlar, Gokhan, Kawakami, Kerry, Kiyonari, Toko, Kou, Yu, Kuhlman, D. Michael, Kyrtsis, Alexandros-Andreas, Lay, Siugmin, Leonardelli, Geoffrey J., Li, Norman P., Li, Yang, Maciejovsky, Boris, Manesi, Zoi, Mashuri, Ali, Mok, Aurelia, Moser, Karin S., Moták, Ladislav, Netedu, Adrian, Pammi, Chandrasekhar, Platow, Michael J., Raczka-Winkler, Karolina, Reinders Folmer, Christopher P., Reyna, Cecilia, Romano, Angelo, Shalvi, Shaul, Simão, Cláudia, Stivers, Adam W., Strimling, Pontus, Tsirbas, Yannis, Utz, Sonja, van der Meij, Leander, Waldzus, Sven, Wang, Yiwen, Weber, Bernd, Weisel, Ori, Windschut, Tim, Winter, Fabian, Wu, Junhui, Yong, Jose C., Van Lange, Paul A. M. 2021. Social Mindfulness and Prosociality Vary across the Globe. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS). 118 (35), e20238461




Humans are social animals, but not everyone will be mindful of others to the same extent. Individual differences have been found, but would social mindfulness also be shaped by one’s location in the world? Expecting cross-national differences to exist, we examined if and how social mindfulness differs across countries. At little to no material cost, social mindfulness typically entails small acts of attention or kindness. Even though fairly common, such low-cost cooperation has received little empirical attention. Measuring social mindfulness across 31 samples from industrialized countries and regions (n = 8,354), we found considerable variation. Among selected country-level variables, greater social mindfulness was most strongly associated with countries’ better general performance on environmental protection. Together, our findings contribute to the literature on prosociality by targeting the kind of everyday cooperation that is more focused on communicating benevolence than on providing material benefits.


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Status of publication Published
Affiliation WU
Type of publication Journal article
Journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS)
Citation Index SCI
WU-Journal-Rating new MAR-A+, VW-A
Language English
Title Social Mindfulness and Prosociality Vary across the Globe
Volume 118
Number 35
Year 2021
Page from e20238461
Reviewed? Y
URL https://www.pnas.org/content/118/35/e2023846118
DOI https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2023846118
Open Access Y
Open Access Link https://www.pnas.org/content/118/35/e2023846118


Fiedler, Susann (Details)
Aharonov-Majar, Efrat (University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva, Israel)
Athenstaedt, Ursula (University of Graz, Austria)
Bai, Liying (Fuzhou University, China)
Böhm, Robert (University of Copenhagen, Denmark)
Bovina, Inna (Moscow State University of Psychology and Education, Russian Federation)
Buchan, Nancy R. (University of South Carolina, United States/USA)
Chen, Xiao-Ping (University of Washington, United States/USA)
Dumont, Kitty B. (University of South Africa, South Africa)
Engelmann, Jan B. (University of Amsterdam, Netherlands)
Eriksson, Kimmo (Stockholm University, Sweden)
Euh, Hyun (University of Minnesota, United States/USA)
Friesen, Justin (University of Winnipeg, Canada)
Gächter, Simon (University of Nottingham, United Kingdom)
Gallucci, Marcello (University of Milano-Bicocca, Italy)
Garcia, Camilo (Universidad Veracruzana, Mexico)
González, Roberto (Universidad Católica de Chile, Chile)
Graf, Sylvie (Czech Academy of Sciences, Czech Republic)
Growiec, Katarzyna (SWPS University of Social Sciences and Humanities, Poland)
Guimond, Serge (Université Clermont Auvergne, France)
Hřebíčková, Martina (Czech Academy of Sciences, Czech Republic)
Immer-Bernold, Elizabeth (Sherpany Product Department, Agilentia AG, Switzerland)
Joireman, Jeff (Washington State University,, United States/USA)
Karagonlar, Gokhan (Dokuz Eylül University, Turkey)
Kawakami, Kerry (York University, Toronto, Canada)
Kiyonari, Toko (Aoyama Gakuin University, Japan)
Kou, Yu (Beijing Normal University, China)
Kuhlman, D. Michael (University of Delaware, United States/USA)
Kyrtsis, Alexandros-Andreas (University of Athens, Greece)
Lay, Siugmin (Universidad Católica de Chile, Chile)
Leonardelli, Geoffrey J. (University of Toronto, Canada)
Li, Norman P. (Singapore Management University, Singapore)
Li, Yang (Nagoya University, Japan)
Maciejovsky, Boris (University of California, United States/USA)
Manesi, Zoi (Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Netherlands)
Mashuri, Ali (University of Brawijaya, Indonesia)
Mok, Aurelia (City University of Hong Kong, China)
Moser, Karin S. (The Australian National University, Australia)
Moták, Ladislav (Maison de la Recherche, France)
Murphy, Ryan O. (Morningstar Investment Management, United States/USA)
Netedu, Adrian (Alexandru Ioan Cuza University, Romania)
Pammi, Chandrasekhar (University of Allahabad, India)
Platow, Michael J. (The Australian National University, Australia)
Raczka-Winkler, Karolina (University of Bonn, Germany)
Reinders Folmer, Christopher P. (Ghent University, Belgium)
Reyna, Cecilia (Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Argentina)
Romano, Angelo (Leiden University, Netherlands)
Shalvi, Shaul (University of Amsterdam, Netherlands)
Simão, Cláudia (Universidade Católica Portuguesa, Portugal)
Stivers, Adam W. (Gonzaga University, United States/USA)
Strimling, Pontus (The Institute for Futures Studies, Sweden)
Tsirbas, Yannis (National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Greece)
Tung Au, Wing (University of Hong Kong, China)
Utz, Sonja (University of Tübingen, Germany)
van der Meij, Leander (Eindhoven University of Technology, Netherlands)
Van Doesum, Niels J. (Leiden University, Netherlands)
Van Lange, Paul A. M. (Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Netherlands)
Waldzus, Sven (Instituto Universitário de Lisboa, Portugal)
Wang, Yiwen (Fuzhou University, China)
Weber, Bernd (University of Bonn, Germany)
Weisel, Ori (Tel Aviv University, Israel)
Windschut, Tim (University of Southampton, United Kingdom)
Winter, Fabian (Max-Planck-Institute for Research on Collective Goods, Germany)
Wu, Junhui (Chinese Academy of Sciences, China)
Yong, Jose C. (Nanyang Technological University, Singapore)
Institute for Cognition & Behavior IN (Details)
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